<div class="title-block" style="border-bottom-color: #b56b79"><h1><img class="title-image" src="http://www.heart-resources.org/wp-content/themes/heart/images/education.svg">Access and Participation</h1><div class="post-type-description"></div></div> – Health and Education Advice and Resource Team http://www.heart-resources.org Providing DFID staff and other development actors with health, education and nutrition knowledge and expertise from around the world Fri, 02 Mar 2018 13:10:49 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.9.4 Education technology map: guidance document http://www.heart-resources.org/assignment/education-technology-map-guidance-document/ http://www.heart-resources.org/assignment/education-technology-map-guidance-document/#respond Wed, 05 Apr 2017 13:11:44 +0000 http://www.heart-resources.org/?post_type=assignment&p=29749 Read more]]> This report serves as a user guide for a mapping exercise of research on the use of technology in low-resource environments. It should be read in conjunction with the map itself: an excel sheet titled ‘Education technology evidence database’. The map and user guide are intended to be resources for all those in the sector seeking to engage with the evidence regarding education technology. For the purpose of the exercise, education technology is understood to encompass all areas of education programmes and policy where technology may be used to help improve the effectiveness of interventions in achieving educational outputs and outcomes.

The map includes 401 resources. Some observations about the collection:

  • There is a major emphasis on observational studies (278), followed by quasi-experimental studies (81), experimental studies (23) and secondary studies (six).
  • Of the studies with a stated geographical focus, 365 are located within one country and only 22 are multi-country studies.
  • Overall, the evidence has a dispersed geographical base, with seven regions contributing more than 20 studies. However there is a complete absence of research from much of Central Africa.
  • No one particular technology has particular prominence within the map: mobiles, laptops, desktops and tablets each have less than 50 studies.
  • The most frequently occurring intervention / input areas are in relation to curriculum and pedagogy (263) and teacher training (139). The most frequently occurring outputs are teacher ICT literacy and use (262) and student ICT literacy and use (223).
  • The most frequently occurring outcomes are related to teaching quality (194) and student educational achievement (135).
  • The map does not assess the quality of evidence in the resources. However, more than half of all the studies self-reported a positive effect (219) and less than 10% reported a negative effect (35).

Download the interactive database map here.

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The right to education for refugees and internally displaced persons: data gaps and challenges http://www.heart-resources.org/blog/right-education-refugees-internally-displaced-persons-data-gaps-challenges/ http://www.heart-resources.org/blog/right-education-refugees-internally-displaced-persons-data-gaps-challenges/#respond Fri, 09 Dec 2016 10:25:19 +0000 http://www.heart-resources.org/?post_type=blog&p=29711 Read more]]> On Human Rights Day, Ruth Naylor, co-author of our HEART topic guide on education for refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) in low- and middle-income countries, highlights the data gaps and challenges to addressing educational needs for this largely invisible group.  

Education is a fundamental human right. Legally, every individual across the world is entitled to a free elementary education. Education is essential for strengthening all other human rights, promotes individual wellbeing and empowerment, and is a basis for important economic and social benefits. Yet the challenges for refugees and IDPs in accessing education remain stark. According to a recent report by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), only 50 per cent of refugee children access primary education and only 22 per cent of refugee adolescents access secondary. The situation is particularly bad for girls, with only eight refugee girls in primary school for every ten boys, and only seven girls to ten boys at secondary. Given that refugees spend, on average, 20 years in forced displacement, this is not just a temporary break in children’s schooling. Being out of school’ as a refugee often means missing out on education entirely.

Although the scale of the challenge is huge, the fact that the UNHCR is able to report these statistics is a vital initial step in catalyzing action from host governments and the international community to address it. There are still major data gaps (for example, age disaggregated data are often missing, making it difficult to estimate enrolment rates). But the monitoring and reporting of education data for refugees has improved dramatically in recent years.

Data gaps, challenges and opportunities

The majority of those displaced by conflict remain within their own borders as IDPs. Much less is known about this group of people, especially the majority who live within host communities rather than in camps. Unlike refugees, there is no single, internationally agreed definition of an IDP, and often no legal requirement for them to register. The Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) compiles data on IDPs but is only able to give estimates, and the data are not directly comparable country to country. Only a minority of countries report IDP data disaggregated by age and sex. Whilst we know that there are almost twice as many IDPs as refugees (41 million in 2015, compared to 21 million refugees), we do not know how many are of school age or how many have access to education. Like refugees, IDPs are often trapped in displacement for many years, and short-term humanitarian response systems are not well equipped to provide the continuity of funding needed to keep teachers teaching and children learning.

The challenges of meeting the education needs of children and adolescents living in forced displacement are discussed in the HEART topic guide on education for refugees and IDPs in low- and middle-income countries. There remain major service provision and funding gaps, particularly for adolescents and youth. Only 13 per cent of the UNHCR’s education budget in 2015 went to secondary education. The topic guide also presents examples of approaches that have been successful, and promising practices. The education of Palestinian refugees through the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) provides an example of how quality education for refugees in protracted displacement can be successfully delivered at scale, given sufficient resources. There are also countless examples of education initiatives run by refugees and IDPs that often remain under the radar. There have been promising developments in the international funding systems, with the Global Partnership for Education developing funding modalities to help national governments plan for and cope with displacement crises, and the Education Cannot Wait platform. There are efforts to harness technology to deliver education to displaced populations, and to improve data and monitoring. However, given that access to secondary school for refugees worldwide is worse than in the poorest, most fragile of countries, and that access for IDPs is probably worse still, there is still a long way to go.

Ruth Naylor is a Senior International Advisor at Education Development Trust.

This blog is cross-posted on the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) website.


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Education and displaced populations: with not for http://www.heart-resources.org/blog/education-displaced-populations-not/ http://www.heart-resources.org/blog/education-displaced-populations-not/#respond Tue, 29 Nov 2016 09:48:41 +0000 http://www.heart-resources.org/?post_type=blog&p=29702 Read more]]> Joseph Munyambanza, a refugee from the DRC, started teaching fellow refugees in Uganda in his early teens, whilst studying at secondary school. In his keynote speech in Berlin, at “Education for a better future – creating prospects for displaced populations”, he described how he had joined with other refugee youth in his camp to form COBURWAS International Youth Organization to Transform Africa (CIYOTA) to deliver informal lessons to refugee children during their school holidays. The organisation has gone on to open nursery and primary schools, and provide hostels and scholarships to enable refugees to attend secondary school and university. The CIYOTA primary schools gained some of the top results in the area, outshining the Ugandan government schools and prompting the Ugandan Ministry of Education to recognise them as formal schools.

The capacity of grassroots organisations, run by refugees to provide quality education for refugees also came out as one of the main findings from research into education for urban refugees, led by Mary Mendenhall’s team at Teachers College Columbia, and explored during a workshop at the Berlin conference.

Joseph’s speech reminded me of grassroots organisations that I worked with early on in my career: Sudan Open Learning Organisation (SOLO) working with Internally Displaced People (IDPs) around Khartoum, Need Service Education Agency (NSEA) supporting education quality in southern Sudan (pre-independence) and Literacy and Basic Education (LABE) operating in northern Uganda. These organisations ran some of the best quality education programmes I have ever seen, working with very limited resources in very difficult contexts. SOLO started using the “school in a box” model to respond to the risk of schools being bulldozed by the Khartoum administration long before it was adopted and taken to scale by UNICEF and other international organisations.

How can the potential of these refugee and IDP led initiatives be realised in delivering quality education to the displaced populations sustainably and at scale?

One of the challenges is that they often remain under the radar. The initiatives are not well documented and have little, if any, profile on the internet. The recently published DFID topic guide on Education for Refugees and IDPs, whilst acknowledging the important role of such organisations, could provide very few references to their achievements, as they remain relatively invisible in the literature.

It can be difficult for host governments to recognise or integrate refugee-led initiatives into their national systems as there may be concerns over teacher certification, curriculum, and quality standards. In the case of IDPs, whilst the government has legal responsibility for the provision of education it may be ambivalent or even hostile to education initiatives by the IDP community, especially where government actions led to the displacement in the first place.

Grass root initiatives may be seen as a threat to International NGO and UN agency operations, or be dismissed for failing to meet minimum standards. Joseph encountered more resistance from international organisations working in his refugee camp than from the Ugandan Ministry of Education.

It is vital that the international community  works closely with host governments. But how can we also ensure that host governments, NGOs and UN agencies also work on education with displaced populations and not just education for them?

By Ruth Naylor, Education Development Trust 

This blog was originally posted on INEE on 26 November 2016. Reposted with permission.

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Education in emergencies and protracted crises: toward a strengthened response http://www.heart-resources.org/doc_lib/education-emergencies-protracted-crises-toward-strengthened-response/ http://www.heart-resources.org/doc_lib/education-emergencies-protracted-crises-toward-strengthened-response/#respond Fri, 28 Oct 2016 10:26:47 +0000 http://www.heart-resources.org/?post_type=doc_lib&p=29527 Read more]]> With tens of millions affected, and nearly one third of those out of school in crisis affected countries, neglecting the education of these children and youth denies not only their future, but also the future of societies where they live. Education in emergencies and protracted crises can provide safes paces during crises, and is crucial to the success of other interventions, such as water and health. Education is vital for both economic growth and peace and stability of countries. It is often identified as a high priority by affected communities themselves. This paper, a contribution to the Oslo Summit on Education Development 6-7 July 2015, details the challenge and show how, with political commitment and resourcing, much more could be done.

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Education of refugees in Uganda: relationships between setting and access http://www.heart-resources.org/doc_lib/education-refugees-uganda-relationships-setting-access/ http://www.heart-resources.org/doc_lib/education-refugees-uganda-relationships-setting-access/#respond Fri, 28 Oct 2016 09:37:31 +0000 http://www.heart-resources.org/?post_type=doc_lib&p=29520 Read more]]> This research seeks to explore the education of refugee children in Uganda. Specifically, it addresses the multiple ways in which refugees access education and the social effects of the differing forms of education on the creation of stability for refugee children. Conditions in Uganda have allowed the development of four distinct arenas in which the primary education of refugee children is taking place.

The research findings suggest that access to education for refugees is largely determined by the setting in which the refugee lives. Access is interpreted broadly and includes not only the number and percentage of children enrolled in school but also the ability for a refugee child to access – or benefit from – the education once he or she is in the classroom. Over the course of this paper, factors affecting the access of refugee children to education are identified and evaluated. First, the financial costs of education, especially in urban areas, limit the number of refugees who can go to school. Second, the lack of qualified teachers, particularly in rural settings, impinges on the quality of education available to refugees. Third, English as a language of instruction means that refugee children must repeat classes, and they are often old socially for the level of education to which they find themselves limited by language. Fourth, immense social stability is created for refugee children in situations where there is integration of refugee and national pupils, as the context of displacement is somewhat normalised. Finally, this study examines the need for increased co-ordination of services between UNHCR, its implementing partners, and district education officials in order to improve overall access to education for refugee children in Uganda.

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Learning independence: education in emergency and transition in Timor-Leste since 1999. http://www.heart-resources.org/doc_lib/learning-independence-education-emergency-transition-timor-leste-since-1999/ http://www.heart-resources.org/doc_lib/learning-independence-education-emergency-transition-timor-leste-since-1999/#respond Fri, 28 Oct 2016 09:08:42 +0000 http://www.heart-resources.org/?post_type=doc_lib&p=29516 Read more]]> This study looks at how schooling in East Timor was affected by the political violence and human displacement that followed the consultation held in September 1999 to decide its constitutional future. The reports makes a critical examination of the steps taken to re-establish education under the auspices of the United Nations Transitional Authority in East Timor (UNTAET) in 2002, and East Timor became the independent nation of Timor-Leste.

The author explores how political disputes and general governance issues slowed down the educational reform process, and how a declared focus on system reconstruction in reality emphasised physical infrastructure. She highlights the role played by donors, noting that geopolitical considerations influenced the support provided. The study also examines the implications of language policy, and other challenges facing the nascent national education system, including poor qualifications of teachers, high attrition rates in primary school, limited access to secondary school, widespread adult illiteracy, limited classroom resources and struggles to provide tertiary education.


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The teacher labour market in Pakistan http://www.heart-resources.org/2016/10/teacher-labour-market-pakistan/ http://www.heart-resources.org/2016/10/teacher-labour-market-pakistan/#comments Tue, 11 Oct 2016 20:17:58 +0000 http://www.heart-resources.org/?p=29401 Read more]]> This study questions the feasibility of imposing a broad-based minimum wage legislation for teachers. It focuses on those working in the low-fee sector within the Pakistani context. The scale of the private school sector is unknown. Low-fee schools are likely to be unregistered and unrecognised. They will not exist on government books. The plan for implementing legislation is unclear. Such legislation may have an impact on the operations of small-scale informal low-fee enterprises. They charge low fees and pay low salaries. The legislation may result in illegality and corruption. It may cause large scale closures.

The government must effectively regulate the functioning of these enterprises. The realities of  all kinds of providers must be considered. Elite urban private schools should not dominate regulation formation. Careful consideration of the implications of legislation and ordinances on the diverse range of providers is needed. This is usually partly due to a lack of understanding about the true nature of the private sector. Education legislation is often framed with the more ‘visible’ urban high-fee charging private schools. The diversity of private schools at varying fee levels is not always considered. A better and more comprehensive understanding of low-fee schools needs to be established through further research.

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Approaches to promoting educational inclusion, participation and learning achievement among Roma children http://www.heart-resources.org/2016/09/approaches-promoting-educational-inclusion-participation-learning-achievement-among-roma-children/ http://www.heart-resources.org/2016/09/approaches-promoting-educational-inclusion-participation-learning-achievement-among-roma-children/#respond Wed, 07 Sep 2016 13:35:06 +0000 http://www.heart-resources.org/?p=29374 Read more]]> This report summarises available evidence on approaches to promoting inclusion, participation and achievement in education for Roma children.

The purpose of this report was to inform programme development for Roma education in Eastern Europe and the Middle East, and to support policy dialogue with governments, sub-national authorities and others. However, examples and evidence from the Middle East were not found to be available, and therefore the report draws primarily on evidence and examples from Eastern and South European countries. The review does not present findings or practices differentiated according to country or region, unless otherwise specified. However, the review draws on documentary evidence and case studies from the following countries: Albania; Bosnia & Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Greece; Hungary; Kosovo; Macedonia; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Slovakia.

In general terms, the range of interventions under each section can be categorised as either systemic inputs (e.g. educational resources, mechanisms, and infrastructure) or educational inputs (e.g. courses, content, teaching and learning approaches etc.). It is to be noted that the role of administration, infrastructure, and resources in countries may make up important differences in the effectiveness of types of education interventions for Roma children, particularly when focusing on school-level activities.

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Birte Snilstveit on improving learning outcomes and access to education http://www.heart-resources.org/mmedia/birte-snilstveit-improving-learning-outcomes-access-education/ http://www.heart-resources.org/mmedia/birte-snilstveit-improving-learning-outcomes-access-education/#respond Mon, 15 Aug 2016 11:24:22 +0000 http://www.heart-resources.org/?post_type=mmedia&p=29371 Read more]]> Birte Snilstveit, 3ie’s Evaluation Specialist, presented findings on 14th April 2016 from 3ie’s systematic review on education effectiveness, Interventions for improving learning outcomes and access to education in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) on education aim to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning. In this context, there is a need for evidence on the effects of education interventions for informing decisions about how limited funding can be best used to achieve quality education for all children. The review identifies, assesses and synthesises evidence on the effects of education interventions on children’s access to education and learning in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It synthesises findings from 238 studies evaluating the effects of a range of different education programmes in 52 LMICs.

The review finds that programmes have improved either school participation or learning outcomes, but not both. Cash transfer programmes have the largest and most consistent positive effects on school participation outcomes, but they do not typically improve learning outcomes. Structured pedagogy on the other hand have the largest and most consistent positive effects on learning outcomes, but the studies that measure participation outcomes do not suggest a positive effect.

Other panellists for the session on education effectiveness and the SDGs include Chris Berry, Head of Profession for Education, DFID, and Elizabeth King, 3ie Board of Commissioners who spoke about tailoring educational materials to local contexts and the relevance of considering contextual factors when making policy recommendations.

A video of the session can be seen here.

This session formed part of the 3ie London Evidence Week Conference. The full day’s event on ‘Meeting local and global development goals: how rigorous evidence can help’ can be found here.


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Interventions for improving learning outcomes and access to education in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review http://www.heart-resources.org/doc_lib/interventions-improving-learning-outcomes-access-education-low-middle-income-countries-systematic-review/ http://www.heart-resources.org/doc_lib/interventions-improving-learning-outcomes-access-education-low-middle-income-countries-systematic-review/#respond Mon, 15 Aug 2016 11:16:21 +0000 http://www.heart-resources.org/?post_type=doc_lib&p=29370 Read more]]> Substantial progress has been made in improving access to education in low- and middle income countries (LMICs). However, several challenges still need to be addressed. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) on education aim to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning. In this context, there is a need for evidence on the effects of education interventions for informing decisions about how limited funding can be best used to achieve quality education for all children. This review identifies, assesses and synthesises evidence on the effects of education interventions on children’s access to education and learning in LMICs. It synthesises findings from 238 studies evaluating the effects of a range of different education programmes in 52 LMICs. The review finds that programmes typically improve either school participation or learning outcomes, but not both. Cash transfer programmes have the largest and most consistent positive effects on school participation outcomes, but they do not typically improve learning outcomes. Structured pedagogy on the other hand have the largest and most consistent positive effects on learning outcomes, but the (few) studies that measure participation outcomes do not suggest a positive effect.


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