The Effects of Psychosocial Risk and Gender on School Attainment in Guatemala

This study examines the effects of gender and early biological, social, and psychological risk factors on secondary school grade attainment in rural Guatemalan adolescents. The present sample comprised 333 adolescents (156 females and 177 males) with available data on growth, health, and cognitive indices as well as family histories measured during infancy and the preschool… Read more


Allowing Men to Care. Fatherhood and Child Security Project: A Program to Engage Men on HIV, Violence, and Caregiving in South Africa.

To improve men’s family relationships, the Sonke Gender Justice Network’s Fatherhood project addresses norms that condone gender-based violence which exacerbate the spread of HIV and leave the needs of Orphans and Vulnerable Children unmet. In particular, it works with men and communities to change traditional roles for men to include caring for the ill, parenting… Read more


Breastfeeding and School Achievement in Brazilian Adolescents

Aim: To assess the effect of breastfeeding duration on school achievement in a Brazilian cohort. Methods: In a population-based birth cohort, we analysed the highest grade achieved in school of over 2000 male 18-y-olds relative to breastfeeding information collected in early life. Analyses were adjusted for birthweight, family income, maternal and paternal schooling, household assets, number… Read more


Worms: Identifying Impacts on Education and Health in the Presence of Treatment Externalities

Intestinal helminths—including hookworm, roundworm, whipworm, and schistosomiasis—infect more than one-quarter of the world’s population. Studies in which medical treatment is randomized at the individual level potentially doubly underestimate the benefits of treatment, missing externality benefits to the comparison group from reduced disease transmission, and therefore also underestimating benefits for the treatment group. We evaluate a… Read more


Early childhood diarrhea predicts impaired school performance

OBJECTIVE: Diarrhea is a leading cause of mortality worldwide; however, its long-term morbidity is poorly understood. Recently, early childhood diarrhea (ECD) has been associated with impaired physical fitness, growth and cognitive function 6 to 9 years later. We studied the effects of ECD on school functioning in a shantytown in northeastern Brazil. DESIGN: We administered… Read more


Hand Washing Among School Children in Bogotá, Colombia

Objectives. We assessed hand-washing behaviors and intentions among school children in Bogotá, Colombia, to help identify and overcome barriers to proper hygiene practices. Methods. Data on hand-washing behavior and intentions and individual and contextual factors were collected from 2042 sixth- through eighth-grade students in 25 schools in Bogotá via anonymous questionnaires. A member of the… Read more


“Care for Development” intervention in rural China: a prospective follow-up study

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the efficacy and appropriateness of the World Health Organization’s Care for Development (CFD) counseling materials, which form part of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy. The CFD materials are based on the Mother’s Card, which contained age-specific messages on how caregivers can better play… Read more


Early childhood nutrition and academic achievement: a longitudinal analysis

Many policymakers propose early childhood nutrition programs as a way to increase students’ academic achievement. This paper investigates the nutrition–learning nexus using a unique longitudinal data set that follows a large sample of Filipino children from birth until the end of their primary education. We find that better nourished children perform significantly better in school,… Read more


Effect of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria on health and education in schoolchildren: a cluster-randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in early childhood, yet its consequences for health and education during the school-age years remain poorly understood. We examined the effect of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) in reducing anaemia and improving classroom attention and educational achievement in semi-immune schoolchildren in an area of high perennial… Read more


Early Childhood Development and Disability: A discussion paper

This discussion paper provides a brief overview of issues pertaining to early childhood development (ECD) and disability. It lays the foundation for a long-term strategic and collaborative process aimed at improving the developmental outcomes, participation and protection of young children with disabilities. Essential to this effort is dialogue between United Nations agencies and relevant stakeholders… Read more


Childhood growth, schooling, and cognitive development: further evidence from the Young Lives study

Background: A growing literature has linked early childhood growth to later-life cognition and schooling outcomes in developing countries. Although existing evidence suggests that children’s ability to recover from early growth delays in later childhood is limited, longitudinal studies on the persistence and risk of growth faltering beyond age 5 y remain scarce. Objective: Using longitudinal… Read more


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