Breastfeeding promotion for infants in neonatal units: a systematic review and economic analysis.

Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions that promote or inhibit breastfeeding or feeding with breastmilk for infants admitted to neonatal units, and to identify an agenda for future research. Data sources Electronic databases were searched (including MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process Citations, EMBASE, CINAHL, Maternity and Infant Care, PsycINFO, British Nursing Index and… Read more

From Neurons to Neighborhoods

Scientists have had a long-standing fascination with the complexities of the process of human development. Parents have always been captivated by the rapid growth and development that characterize the earliest years of their children’s lives. Professional service providers continue to search for new knowledge to inform their work. Consequently, one of the distinctive features of… Read more

Maternal Nutrition and Epigenetics in Early Life

There are increasing evidences that prenatal events influencing in utero milieu and fetal development are associated with risk of developing chronic adult conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Epigenetics is one of the potential molecular mechanisms explaining this phenomenon, often called “fetal metabolic programming.” Epigenetics is defined as heritable regulation of DNA transcription that is independent of the DNA… Read more

Maternal Nutrition and Fetal Development

Nutrition is the major intrauterine environmental factor that alters expression of the fetal genome and may have lifelong consequences. This phenomenon, termed “fetal programming,” has led to the recent theory of “fetal origins of adult disease.” Namely, alterations in fetal nutrition and endocrine status may result in developmental adaptations that permanently change the structure, physiology,… Read more

Early childhood development and the role of the father

I attended the launch of the HEART Early Childhood Development (ECD) topic guide this week. Experts who attended put emphasis on parenting and nurture. Nutrition programmes are currently the strongest element in ECD. As a way forward there was a suggestion that parenting advice could be built into existing nutrition programmes. The importance of early… Read more

Allowing Men to Care. Fatherhood and Child Security Project: A Program to Engage Men on HIV, Violence, and Caregiving in South Africa.

To improve men’s family relationships, the Sonke Gender Justice Network’s Fatherhood project addresses norms that condone gender-based violence which exacerbate the spread of HIV and leave the needs of Orphans and Vulnerable Children unmet. In particular, it works with men and communities to change traditional roles for men to include caring for the ill, parenting… Read more

Every Newborn: An Action Plan to end Preventable Deaths

The Every Newborn action plan is based on the latest epidemiology, evidence and global and country learning, and supports the United Nations Secretary-General’s Every Woman Every Child movement. The preparation was guided by the advice of experts and partners, led by WHO and UNICEF, and by the outcome of several multi-stakeholder consultations and a web-based… Read more

Effect of interpregnancy interval on birth outcomes: findings from three recent US studies

The relationship between interpregnancy interval and adverse birth outcomes (i.e., low birth weight, preterm birth, and small size for gestational age) was examined in three recent studies conducted in Utah and Michigan of the United States. These studies were conducted among different populations, used different study designs (i.e., cross-sectional and retrospective cohort designs), and addressed… Read more

Effects of preceding birth intervals on neonatal, infant and under-five years mortality and nutritional status in developing countries: evidence from the demographic and health surveys

Objective This paper examines the association between birth intervals and infant and child mortality and nutritional status. Methods Repeated analysis of retrospective survey data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program from 17 developing countries collected between 1990 and 1997 were used to examine these relationships. The key independent variable is the length of… Read more

New evidence on birth spacing: promising findings for improving newborn, infant, child, and maternal health

This editorial summarizes new evidence, some of which is published in this supplement, on birth spacing and newborn, infant, child and maternal health, as well as the demand for birth spacing services in the developing world. The article points to the high number of annual infant, child and maternal deaths, low birth weight infants and… Read more

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