Urban health reading pack B: improving population health – strategies for inter-sectoral action

Introduction to the topic The multi-dimensional nature of the factors affecting urban health is highlighted in the reading pack on data and evidence. Urban infrastructure such as housing, water and sanitation, green space, crime and security, transport and traffic planning, social welfare schemes, and health and education services have direct and indirect impacts on health…. Read more


Rights-based approaches to increasing access to Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights

This helpdesk report provides an overview of some of the most relevant evidence on rights-based approaches to increasing access to SRHR including how they have been measured and enhanced access where information is available. Section 2 of this report explores the impact of policy changes on accessing rights, and the impact that champions of SRHR within… Read more


Increasing access to sexual and reproductive health and rights via new innovations and technologies in Africa

New innovations and technology, including mobiles and internet, have enormous potential for increasing access to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). They can be particularly helpful in reaching hard to access groups, including remote or stigmatised populations, due to the rapid spread of telecommunications infrastructure, mobile phones and broadband usage in low and middle… Read more


Preventing early pregnancy and poor reproductive outcomes among adolescents in developing countries

The WHO guidelines, Preventing early pregnancy and poor reproductive outcomes among adolescents in developing countries, provide both a call to action and directions for future research on: preventing early pregnancy: by preventing marriage before 18 years of age; by increasing knowledge and understanding of the importance of pregnancy prevention; by increasing the use of contraception;… Read more


Health budgets for primary health facilities

This helpdesk response aimed to discover what the recommended proportion of an annual national health budget in sub-Saharan Africa is for the maintenance of primary health facilities. From both a rapid review of the evidence available and from correspondence with experts in public health financing, it is clear that no such recommendation exists. In light… Read more


Measuring the quality and performance of healthcare providers in conflict settings

The purpose of the review was to provide a summary of possible indicators which might be used to measure the performance and quality of healthcare in conflict-affected settings. There is considerable guidance on measuring access, availability and quantity of health provision in these settings, but much less on whether this care is sufficient or effective…. Read more


Targeted interventions for sex workers to reduce HIV

This review has found a number of peer reviewed studies and grey literature on interventions targeted at sex workers for HIV prevention. Several were systematic reviews, some comprehensive reviews and policy papers. A number of individual studies focused on cost effectiveness are presented. Two interventions in India are considered particularly effective and scalable interventions. A… Read more


Evidence on the impact of salary supplementation schemes on performance of health workers

This helpdesk report explores the evidence available on the impact of salary supplementation schemes on the performance, recruitment and retention of health workers. Salary supplementation can be defined as monetary payments or in-kind benefits paid to staff above the standard compensation for their position. There are two key types of salary supplementation schemes: those aiming… Read more


Cost-effectiveness of interventions for improving adolescent sexual and reproductive health

Research on the cost-effectiveness of interventions to improve SRH for adolescents is limited. This rapid review includes research on some interventions which focus specifically on girls and some research on programmes for both boys and girls. Three studies were identified that specifically analysed cost-effectiveness of SRH interventions for adolescents in low- and middle-income countries (see… Read more


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