Learning by doing something else: experience with alternatives and adoption of a high-barrier menstrual hygiene technology

The market for menstrual hygiene products in developing countries is expanding rapidly, driven both by private demand and by public efforts to improve girls’ educational outcomes as well as women’s health and dignity. However, many girls and women cannot consistently afford the monthly cost of disposable menstrual products and revert to less hygienic solutions when… Read more


“Bitten by shyness”: menstrual hygiene management, sanitation, and the quest for privacy in South Africa

Little is known about how menstruation is managed in low-income settings and whether existing sanitation systems meet women’s needs. Using the ‘Photovoice’ method with 21 women in participatory workshops and in-depth interviews, data was collected on menstrual hygiene management in three sites in Durban, South Africa. All women reported using disposable sanitary pads. Although they… Read more


Menstrual hygiene matters: a resource for improving menstrual hygiene around the world

This resource aims to provide a comprehensive guide on menstrual hygiene that supports the development of context-specific information for improving practices for women and girls in lower- and middle-income countries. It brings together examples of good menstrual hygiene practice from around the world, related to policies, strategies, programmes and interventions, so that knowledge can be shared and adapted to… Read more


Menstrual hygiene management amongst schoolgirls in the Rukungiri district of Uganda and the impact on their education: a cross-sectional study

An increasing number of studies have found that girls in low-income settings miss or struggle at school during menstruation if they are unable to manage their menstrual hygiene effectively. This study explores the menstrual hygiene practices and knowledge of girls at rural government primary schools in the Rukungiri district in Uganda and assesses the extent… Read more


Use of menstrual cup by adolescent girls and women: potential benefits and key challenges

Managing menstruation requires the use of disposable sanitary towels. Disposable sanitary towels are the most frequently used methods to manage menstruation. In resource-poor settings, they are often too expensive and unaffordable to most adolescent girls and women who need them. Consequently these women and adolescent girls resort to unhygienic methods. Lack of access to sanitary… Read more


Menstrual hygiene in Ugandan schools: an investigation of low-cost sanitary pads

Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) is a largely overlooked issue in the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector. Every day, millions of menstruating girls and women in low-income countries struggle to find clean water for washing, private places for changing and adequate blood absorbing materials. This study aims to explore the difficulties experienced by schoolgirls in… Read more


Public health surveillance

Introduction The 2014/15 Ebola outbreak in West Africa demonstrated that there is a need to make disease surveillance more effective. This reading pack sets out key features of effective surveillance systems, challenges to building these systems in low resource settings, and some suggested approaches. It places surveillance in the wider context of health systems strengthening,… Read more


Emerging infectious diseases and pandemic potential: status quo and reducing risk of global spread

Emerging infectious diseases are an important public health threat and infections with pandemic potential are a major global risk. Although much has been learned from previous events the evidence for mitigating actions is not definitive and pandemic preparedness remains a political and scientific challenge. A need exists to develop trust and effective meaningful collaboration between… Read more


Early detection, assessment and response to acute public health events: implementation of early warning and response with a focus on event-based surveillance

The goal of this document is to provide national health authorities, and stakeholders supporting them, with guidance for implementing or enhancing the all-hazards Early Warning and Response (EWAR) within national surveillance systems. It aims to provide direction regarding the implementation of surveillance capacities, especially Event-Based Surveillance (EBS), in order to detect and to respond rapidly… Read more


IDSR as a platform for implementing IHR in African countries

Of the 46 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) African region (AFRO), 43 are implementing Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) guidelines to improve their abilities to detect, confirm, and respond to high priority communicable and non-communicable diseases. IDSR provides a framework for strengthening the surveillance, response, and laboratory core capacities required by the… Read more


Ebola: what lessons for the International Health Regulations?

With more than 3000 deaths since the first case was confirmed in March, 2014, the international community has recognised Ebola as a public health emergency of international concern and a clear threat to global health security. It is the subject of a high-level UN Security Council resolution, and has triggered the creation of a UN… Read more


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