This study critically examines the problems of primary education system in Pakistan. For this purpose a critical review of existing literature was carried out. On the basis of deeper and critical investigation into the literature, the study found that primary education is the most neglected, poorly financed and poorly managed. There is political interference in the system which breeds corruption, favoritism and nepotism. The system of supervision is weak and traditionally characterized having no effective mechanism for teacher training with poor system of accountability, teachers are underpaid and successive educational policies have failed to bring any positive changes in the system due to poor implementation. The curriculum of the primary education is outdated. Assessment is based on the memory of the students rather than their performance. On the basis of this study it is recommended that the problems can be solved by robust system of accountability, eradication of corruption, quality assessment system, non political interference, quality curriculum, teacher motivation.