In the midst of the global epidemics of both unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection, contraceptive options that provide dual protection are ideal. However, those contraceptives with the best record of preventing pregnancy under typical use conditions (sterilization, hormonal methods, intrauterine devices) provide little if any protection against sexually transmitted infection. Alternatively, barrier contraceptive methods (specifically, condoms), which can reduce risks of many sexually transmitted infections, are associated with relatively higher pregnancy rates for most users than other contraceptives. This situation has produced a dilemma for those wishing to promote dual protection: whether to advocate use of two methods (one primarily to prevent pregnancy and the other primarily to prevent infections) or whether to emphasize use of condoms for both purposes. Data comparing these two approaches are limited and often contradictory. This paper discusses the underlying concepts of exposure to both pregnancy and infection, provides a broad overview of the effectiveness of contraceptive methods against these two conditions, presents approaches to optimize dual protection, and proposes several new directions for necessary research.
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