This book is concerned with upgrading job relevant skills. It focus on three types of training programs relevant for individuals who are leaving formal general schooling or are already in the labour market. These are:
- Pre-employment technical and vocational education and training (TVET). TVET is usually offered within the formal schooling track and tends to be administered by the ministries of education.
- On-the-job training (OJT)
- Training-related active labour market programs (ALMPs). ALMPs do not take up much time and target low skilled or informal workers who do not have access to TVET or OJT.
The book discusses the strengths and weaknesses of these programs and contextualises them with market failures that can lead to underinvestment in training and misalignment between supply and demand for skills. Examples are given of programs that are part of the problem and not the solution. Recommendations are made to improve the design and implementation of current skills development systems. Important design features are reported, as are gaps in the evidence.DOWNLOAD [3 MB]