This report summarises the findings of a rigorous review on the role and impact of philanthropic and religious schools in developing countries. A prior review initially sought to cover all types of non-state schools, but was subsequently separated into two parts. The first reviewed the role and impact of private schools in developing countries. The second part – this report –covered other forms of non-state provision. The categorisation of these providers has been driven by the coverage of the literature with a focus on those education providers whose foundational ideology is religious (religious schools) and those founded as philanthropic organisations, such as NGOs, CSOs, etc., (philanthropic schools). A full discussion of these categories is set out in the full report. The two reviews will be synthesised in a final report, which will enable the drawing of comparisons across these types of provision. The accompanying evidence brief is available here.