The world’s population is ageing rapidly, with the over-60 population growing fastest. Since 2000, there have been more people aged 60 or over than children under 5. A rapidly ageing population presents large and unique challenges. This briefing discusses the results of pilot healthcare programmes in four countries, Cambodia, Mozambique, Peru and Tanzania. The findings show that health systems must provide more integrated health and care services to meet the needs of ageing populations.