Comparative advantages and disadvantages of “push” and “pull” mechanisms in pharmaceutical management

In pharmaceutical management, distribution schemes for medicines can be defined as “push” or “pull” systems. In a pull system, each level of the system determines the types and quantities of medicines needed and place orders with the supply source. In a push system, supply sources determine the types and quantities of medicines to be delivered… Read more




National pharmaceutical procurement and supply chain institutions

The Kenya Medical Supplies Authority (KEMSA) was the main case study identified for this report. KEMSA reformed in 2008 to increase autonomy from the government. A task force identified interference with the management of KEMSA, lack of autonomy due to heavy representation by Ministry of Health staff, ineffective accountability and supervisory mechanisms, and parallel procurement… Read more




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