Disease Control Priorities (DCP 2nd edition) is a comprehensive resource that provides an updated “checkup” for global health and health care. As part of the “health examination,” DCP2 asked: What progress has been made in defining and reducing the global burden of disease? How much have countries accomplished in developing and providing efficient, effective, and equitable health care? How can they set and achieve priorities in health services? Once these countries have identified the priorities, how can they deliver interventions to the targeted population in the most cost-effective manner? How can the efforts of the health and closely related sectors (such as nutrition, agriculture, water and sanitation, and education) be integrated to optimize health improvements? DCP2‘s answers contribute substantially to global initiatives to improve the health of all peoples by providing a multidisciplinary understanding of these fundamental issues and challenges, as well as effective interventions for the range of communicable and noncommunicable diseases and conditions and risk factors.