Conflicts force people to leave their homes. Indeed, one of the measures of the severity of a conflict – in addition to casualties and duration – is the extent to which people have been displaced from their communities. In a recent survey by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) of eight conflict-affected countries, 56 per cent of people affected by conflict had been displaced and in some conflicts the percentages were far higher, nearly 80 per cent in Afghanistan and nearly 90 per cent in Liberia. In fact when people living in countries with conflict were asked about their greatest fears, fear of displacement was among their top three concerns – after losing a loved one and economic hardship – but above death, physical injury and sexual and gender-based violence. This background paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2011 makes several recommendations, including: increasing knowledge on displacement and education; establishing the normative framework; displacement-affected communities; relief, development and early recovery; and UNHCR and education for refugees and IDPs.