Poverty is urbanizing. After 2008, more people live in urban than rural areas of the world. While the global number of poor is on the decline, an increasing number of people live in urban slums. Education strategies have generally given priority to underserved rural areas. Underneath this priority lies a fear that investments in slums may trigger even more rural-to-urban migration. This fear will now have to be faced in light of the changing demographics. In the meantime, cities have developed some very different education approaches to slum challenges in the absence of clear global strategies.