Gender biases and discrimination: a review of health care interpersonal interactions

A good interpersonal relationship between a patient and provider, as characterised by mutual respect, openness, and a balance in their respective roles in decision-making, is an important marker of quality of care. This review is undertaken from a gender and health equity perspective and illustrates that gender biases and discrimination occur at many levels in the healthcare delivery environment, and affects the patient–provider interaction which can result in health inequities affecting individual health seeking behaviour, access to good quality healthcare, and, ultimately, health outcomes. Interventions will have to be introduced at multiple levels, from health system legislation and policy and gender sensitive training to the development of women and men centred services and health literacy programmes.

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