The current Ebola outbreak is concentrated in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea: countries with limited state capacity which are recovering from political instability and conflict. The indirect consequences of the Ebola epidemic and its disruption of public and private services threaten the lives and livelihoods of more than 22 million people in Ebola-affected areas. As well as its immediate impact on people’s health, the crisis is likely to have longer-term socioeconomic and political consequences which present risks to the countries’ development and stability. This rapid literature review looks at the available evidence on the impact of the Ebola crisis on four key areas: political, economic, social, and security. The review has a particular focus on Sierra Leone.