Technology enthusiasts have long heralded the power of technology—from the printing press, to blackboards, to the laptop—to transform education. With the rapid expansion of information communication technologies around the globe, there is a high level of interest in harnessing modern technology to help advance the education status of some of the world’s poorest people. However, from Pakistan to Peru and beyond, experience shows that while there are numerous examples of how technology is used to the great benefit of teachers and learners alike, there are also many cases in which it does little to impact educational processes and outcomes. A better understanding of why and under what conditions these divergent outcomes emerge is the central aim of this study. The main purpose of this study is to provide guidance to non-specialists interested in pursuing technology for educational improvement in the developing world. The goal is to offer a broad overview of some of the common education challenges facing the developing world and the range of different technologies that are available to help address them. The study looks closely at the different enabling conditions that frequently shape the success or failure of technology interventions in education and derive a set of seven basic principles for effective technology use.