Poverty in a Rising Africa is the first of a two-part volume on poverty in Africa. aimed at better understanding progress in poverty reduction in Africa and articulating a policy agenda to accelerate it. The report discusses the data challenges faced when measuring poverty and inequality in Africa and systematically reviews the measures of poverty and inequality in both monetary and nonmonetary dimensions. It also examines progress in education and health, the extent to which people are free from violence and able to shape their lives, and the joint occurrence of various types of deprivation. In its key messages, the report highlights: 1) measuring poverty in Africa remains a challenge; 2) poverty in Africa may be lower than current estimates suggest, but more people are poor today than in 1990; 3) nonmonetary dimensions of poverty have been improving; and 4) inequality in Africa has many dimensions. The second volume will explore ways to accelerate the reduction of poverty.