Public–private mix (PPM), recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), was introduced to cope with the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic worldwide. In many developing countries, PPM has played a powerful role in TB control, while in others it has failed to meet expectations. Thus, a systematic review was conducted to determine the mechanisms used by global PPM programmes implemented in different countries and to evaluate their performance. The paper concludes, PPM is a promising strategy to strengthen global TB care and control, but is affected by contextual characteristics in different areas. The scaling-up of PPM should contain essential commonalities, particularly substantial financial support and continuous material input. Additionally, it is important to improve programme governance and training for the health providers involved, through integrated collaborative mechanisms.