This case study highlights that despite the challenges in integrating gender equity concerns into the health system in Timor-Leste, overall, the reform of the health system since conflict ended has benefited women’s health. In some areas, Timor-Leste has achieved some key targets, for example the proportion of births attended by a skilled health worker and contraceptive use. However, too many women and girls are still dying in pregnancy and childbirth and knowledge of HIV/AIDS is low. Poor people in remote areas face barriers in accessing health services, mainly due to the cost of travel. This has a particular impact on women.