This education brief provides guidance on developing programmes to enroll refugee out-of-school children (OOSC) in school, and to improve initiatives for children not attending school regularly. It provides information on OOSC needs assessments and highlights cross-sectoral linkages. Information provided in this brief can be applied in both protracted and emergency contexts. Children and youth who are not in school do not benefit from their internationally established right to basic education, and are at greater risk of exploitation, including sexual and gender-based violence, early marriage, child labour, and recruitment into armed groups. Participation in certified education services including formal, non-formal and informal education contributes to durable solutions for refugees. From a solutions perspective, UNHCR prioritises programme access to national education systems in the host country when possible and feasible.