This report, part of WSUP’s Urban Sanitation Research Initiative, explores the background to the urban sanitation sector in Kenya. Kenya is one of Africa’s top 10 economies, experiencing strong urban growth amid deep institutional and governance reforms. However, a minority of urban residents use improved sanitation facilities as per the JMP definition, while wastewater treatment and faecal sludge transport/treatment services are largely inefficient.
In addition, the legal framework for sanitation remains fragmented and focuses on sewerage services. The policy framework sets high ambitions and recognises a range of solutions and service provision models. There is significant institutional fragmentation and overlap, especially between the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Water and Irrigation and investments in sanitation for low-income areas are almost entirely donor-funded. To conclude, inadequate institutional capacity, inadequate sector financing and insufficient data are major barriers to pro-poor sanitation.