This paper synthesises the research literature on teachers’ use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in primary and secondary schools in sub-Saharan Africa, with a particular emphasis on improving the quality of subject teaching and learning. We focus on the internal factors of influence on teachers‟ use, or lack of use, of technology in the classroom. Our discussion attends to perceptions and beliefs about ICT and their motivating effects, technological literacy and confidence levels, pedagogical expertise related to technology use, and the role of teacher education. These factors are discussed in light of significant infrastructure and other external issues. We conclude by drawing out a number of pedagogical implications for initial teacher education and professional development to bring schooling within developing contexts into the 21st century.